Save our dalanced dog food layouts and diet tables. Lear yourself to balance dog food with fats and carbs. Bonus: herbs and plants for dog’s health.
Fats in a balanced dog diet
Fats are part of the protoplasm and the structure of the biomembranes of the dog’s body cells. Their deposits under the skin protect the dog from the cold. Fats are a source of huge potential energy and can be stored in the dog’s body as a reserve of energy, they are necessary for the normal functioning of the digestive glands.
The nutritional value of fats is determined by high energy content, more than twice its content in carbohydrates and proteins. Fats are rich in stearins and phosphorus-containing substances, without which the body cannot exist normally.
Fats are a source of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids – linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, which are not synthesized in dogs or are not synthesized in sufficient quantities. Linoleic acid is of the greatest importance. Its content must be taken into account when preparing homemade balanced dog diets.
The lack of this acid leads to metabolic disorders, damage to the skin (dermatitis, hair depigmentation), a decrease in the body’s natural resistance to infectious diseases, stunted growth, impaired reproductive functions, and reduced animal performance.
Types and amounts of fats in pet’s food
The type and amount of fat significantly affects the palatability of the feed. With an increase in fat content in the diet, palatability and attractiveness of food for dogs and cats increase.
In dogs and cats, 25% to 50% of the daily energy requirement can be met by fat. A dietary content of 5 to 20% fat per dry matter is recommended. But the fat content in the pet’s food, without any negative consequences, can be increased up to 40% in dogs and up to 64% in cats.
An increased level of fat in the diet is necessary during growth, lactation and physical exertion.
Too much fats in the dogs and cats diet
If the amount of fat consumed is too large and it does not have time to digest, then animals may experience steatorrhea (fat bowel movements).
When consuming very large amounts of fat, acute pancreatitis can also develop, especially in obese dogs. Most industrial dog foods contain 7–25% fat. When the diet contains up to 77% fat (in terms of dry matter), dogs develop acute pancreatitis. However, in an experiment on sled dogs, which were fed a diet containing 66% fat for 9 weeks, the animals showed no signs of pancreatitis or increased serum amylase activity. The risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs is practically absent when using canned food with a content of 20-30% fat.
An insufficient fat content in the diet can lead to a deficiency of essential fatty acids and energy, impaired growth and physical condition of animals, as well as a decrease in reproductive abilities.
- Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid for all animals. A good source of unsaturated fatty acids are most vegetable oils, as well as bird and pork fat.
- Arachidonic acid is also indispensable for cats (other animals can synthesize arachidonic acid from linoleic acid). Arachidonic acid is present only in animal fats and is absent in plant foods.
Linoleic acid in dogs and cats can transform into linolenic acid. There are no special requirements for rationing linolenic acid in the diets of dogs and cats.
Essential fatty acids in the diet should be 1% of the dry matter of the feed or 2% of the number of calories consumed.
Carbs in balanced dog food
Under the influence of enzymes contained in the juice of the pancreas and in the intestinal juice, all carbohydrates of the feed break down and turn into glucose (grape sugar) and are absorbed into the blood in this form. Excess glucose absorbed into the blood turns into glycogen (animal starch) in the liver and is deposited in the liver and muscles in this form. As needed, glycogen can again turn into glucose and enter the bloodstream.
The amount of glycogen in the dog’s body decreases with starvation, as well as under the influence of intense physical work and cold. With short work, muscle glycogen is consumed, and with longer work, liver glycogen is also consumed.
The experiments showed that in the body of a dog that drove a cart with cargo for 10 hours, there was about 0.5 g of glycogen per 1 kg of live weight, while in non-working dogs glycogen per 1 kg of live weight accounted for 38 g. A complete absence of glycogen in the liver and muscles is almost impossible to achieve. Even in a dog that had been starving for 28 days, 22.5 g was found in the liver, and 19.2 g of glycogen in the muscles.
The dog’s body is also able to form sugar from the breakdown products of protein and fats. However, the main suppliers of sugar for the dog body are still carbohydrate balanced feed.
Foods containing carbohydrates are the cheapest, many of them contain vitamins needed by pet. The amount of carbohydrate consumed by the pooh’s body per day depends on the work that it does. There should be less fat and more carbohydrates in the balanced dog diet.
Fiber is a complex carbohydrate found in plant foods. The digestive juices of the dog do not digest fiber, so the high fiber content in the pet’s feed makes it difficult to digest and its nutritional is reduced. However, fiber contributes to peristalsis of the pup’s intestines.
Feeding dogs with carbohydrates alone after 20-40 days leads to death.
The best cheap food for dogs
The first three dogs diets, shown in table, are sufficient in calories and protein composition, but poor in fat, especially of animal origin. An additional cottage cheese with two tablespoons of fish oil can eliminate this drawback, especially for winter time.
For many years, diets 4 and 5 have been practiced as annual average for dogs for official purposes and have completely paid off. It can be called “the best cheap food for dogs”. It is easy to see that both diets are sufficient in calorie content for dogs performing medium-tension work and contain sufficient amounts of high-grade proteins.
The presence of fresh meat and vegetables in the pets diets provides the necessary salt and vitamin composition. But the carbohydrate levels in these complex dog diets are consistent with the goal of saving more than satisfying the needs of the pet.
Its necessary to choose right food for dogs of differend breeds also.
Norms of dietary volume for adult dogs, on average per 1 kg of body weight per day, g
|Body weight of dog in kg||Diet consistency|
|Dry diet, 8–10% water||Wet diet,|
|30-60 and more||15||30|
|Products, g||Adult dog||Male-dog||Pregnant dog||Lactating dog|
|Meat, meat waste offal||400-500||750||700||750|
|Meat and bone meal||10||15||15||15|
Balanced dog food diet layout for adults of large breeds
|Product, in g||Su||Mo||Tu||We||Th||Fr||Sa|
|Meat for feeding raw||–||150||–||–||–||150||–|
Making a balanced dog food for puppies, pregnant and lactating dogs
More careful attention should be paid to balanced dog food for puppy and lactating female. To build the skeleton and muscles, the pet’s embryos primarily need proteins and minerals. If in the first three weeks you can adhere to a normal balanced dog diet, then in the future it must be doubled before birth. Food of the dogs should be balanced, complex, easily digestible and not too bulky. If possible, the meat should be used not too fatty, high-grade viscera, pits with fat, cottage cheese, cheese, boiled egg. The amount of fluid in dog’s menu should also be increased.
In the last third part of pregnancy, dogs distribute the daily amount of food for 3-4 feedings, so as not to overload the digestive organs, which are already constrained.
With the advent of puppies, the need for food in a nursing dogs increases by 4 times, since the dog’s body loses up to 70 g of protein per liter with mother’s milk. So that a plentiful diet does not contribute to the relaxation of the walls of the stomach and the formation of a saggy stomach, the dog is continued to be fed 4 times a day.
Puppies usually suck mother’s milk for up to 1 – 1.5 months. From the 23rd day of life, they can already lap milk from a bowl. Around this time, the diet of the mother is gradually reduced.
Puppies are fed with a mixture of warm cow’s milk and raw egg yolk (one yolk per glass of milk). Dogs are difficult to tolerate changes in feeding, so complementary foods begin even when puppies eat mother’s milk.
It is criminal to sell puppies up to 6 weeks, as some owners do, taking 26-day-old babies from their mum. In the morning mother-dog feeds them, and in the afternoon owners sells them, not even starting to feed little puppies with solid food.
The transition to solid food should also occur when the mother of puppies still nursing. Gradually from the 32nd day (not earlier – since the gastric juice for proper digestion begins to be produced precisely by this date), the puppies begin to eat raw meat (first scraped, then minced meat, pieces of meat), raw fish. The dog does not need vegetables and fruits. But if you give them to your dog, it is better in boiled or wiped form.